So 720 true negative results divided by 800, or all non-diseased individuals, times 100, gives us a specificity of 90%. Sensitivity and specificity are essential indicators of test accuracy and allow healthcare providers to determine the appropriateness of the diagnostic tool. However sometimes not all patients with that disease will have an abnormal test result (false negative) and sometimes a patient without the disease will have an abnormal test result (false positive). Balanced Accuracy as described in [Urbanowicz2015]: the average of sensitivity and specificity is computed for each class and then averaged over total number of classes. Because percentages are easy to understand we multiply sensitivity and specificity figures by 100. Specificity As both sensitivity and specificity are proportions, their confidence intervals can be computed using the standard methods for proportions2. Assumption: You have a new rapid diagnostic test being evaluated for the screening of COVID-19, on the specific antibodies produces against the virus, SARS-CoV-2. The PPV and NPV are the other two basic measures of diagnostic accuracy. Before being released for wider use in the medical community, the new test’s sensitivity and specificity are derived by comparing the new test’s results to the gold standard. In other words, 45 persons out of 85 persons with negative results are truly negative and 40 individuals test positive for a disease which they do not have. To understand all three, first we have to consider the situation of … This test will correctly identify 60% of the people who have Disease D, but it will also fail to identify 40%. Sensitivity and Specificity. We can then discuss sensitivity and specificity as percentages. Diagnostic Specificity and diagnostic sensitivity Often a pathology test is used to diagnose a particular disease. They are related to sensitivity and specificity through disease prevalence (∏). SnNout: A test with a high sensitivity value (Sn) that, when negative (N), helps to rule out a disease (out). So, in our example, the sensitivity is 60% and the specificity is 82%. The equation to calculate the sensitivity of a diagnostic test The specificity is calculated as the number of non-diseased correctly classified divided by all non-diseased individuals. In some cases, the purpose of the test is to confirm the diagnosis, but some testing is also used more widely to identify people at risk for specific medical conditions. SnNouts and SpPins is a mnemonic to help you remember the difference between sensitivity and specificity. References: Guyon2015 ( 1 , 2 ) Example of Sensitivity and specificity. Three very common measures are accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. 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